Which animal was bitten by and didn’t need rabies vaccine?

Domestic cats and dogs

Actually, it’s fairly safe.

But when playing with the little vagrants on the side of the road

Be careful of being bitten!

Because they are likely to carry

rabies virus

Rabies virus (a bullet-like virus)

As we all know, rabies is a disease with almost 100% mortality.

If you are scratched or bitten by an animal with rabies virus, the virus may invade our body through broken skin or mucous membrane.

There is another way to be infected, that is, to lick our broken skin by animals with rabies virus, and it may also be infected.

But while recognizing the harm of diseases, more and more people also have the following questions-

Don’t worry. We first introduce a concept, "rabies exposure"-

Refers to bites, scratches, licking mucous membranes or damaged skin by rabies, suspected rabies or uncertain healthy rabies host animals, as well as open wounds and mucous membranes contacting saliva or tissues of animals that may be infected with rabies virus.

According to the way and degree, rabies exposure is divided into three levels, and each level has corresponding prevention and treatment methods.


Need to follow rabies exposure

Animals for disposal

Carnivores such as dogs, cats, foxes, wolves, jackals, weasels and badgers, raccoons, skunks, raccoons and mongooses are the storage hosts of rabies virus, and all of them can be infected with rabies virus and become the source of infection.

Therefore, contact with the above animals should be handled according to rabies exposure.

According to reports, about 80%-90% of patients treated for animal injuries in China are caused by dogs, 7%-15% by cats, 4% by rats, followed by pigs, bats and other animals.


According to rabies level III exposure.

The animal for disposal-bat

Bats are the storage hosts of rabies virus.

Because bat exposure may be a subtle bite or injury that is extremely difficult to detect, it is suggested that bat exposure should be treated as Class III exposure.


There is usually no need to accept rabies exposure

Immunized animals

Rodents (such as chipmunks, squirrels, mice, rats, guinea pigs, gerbils, hamsters) and hares (including rabbits and hares) are rarely infected with rabies, and such animals have not been found to cause human rabies.

Therefore, such animal exposure usually does not require immunization after rabies exposure.


There is no need for rabies exposure.

Immunized animals

Non-mammalian animals such as birds, fish, insects, lizards, turtles and snakes will not infect and spread rabies, so these animals do not need to be immunized after rabies exposure and do not need to be vaccinated against rabies.


What should I do if I am scratched or bitten?

Except for the rare transmission of rabies caused by tissue and organ transplantation, the transmission of rabies from person to person has never been confirmed.

Therefore, if you are bitten or scratched by someone, you don’t need to worry about rabies virus infection and rabies vaccine.


How to get rabies vaccine?

China’s rabies vaccination procedures are mainly "2-1-1" four-needle method and "5-needle method".

However, there is no essential difference in the final effect between these two needle methods.

Compared with the 5-needle method, the 4-needle method saves 1 needle, shortens the inoculation period and produces antibodies earlier. However, the reaction after the first inoculation of 2 doses may be slightly greater.


Do you need a tetanus vaccine?

Tetanus is caused by "Tetanus Bacillus", which is an anaerobic bacterium, most of which exists in soil, feces and rust, and cannot survive when exposed to air.

Clostridium tetanus

However, too deep wounds are not easy to contact with air and form an "oxygen-free" environment, so you need to be careful.

Being bitten by an animal itself will not spread tetanus, but if the wound is too deep or contaminated, there is a risk of tetanus infection, and it is necessary to vaccinate tetanus passive immunosuppressants (tetanus antitoxin or tetanus immunoglobulin) and tetanus vaccine in time.

In addition, if children are vaccinated scientifically according to the national immunization program, children over 18 months old have been vaccinated with 4 doses of DTP vaccine, and children over 6 years old have been vaccinated with 5 doses of tetanus (4 doses of DTP +1 dose of DTP).

The protective effect of vaccination can last for 5-10 years.

Theoretically, children under the age of 16 need not be vaccinated against tetanus after being injured.


Do you need other vaccines?

■ Plague vaccine

Since 1950, the spread of plague among people in China has been basically eliminated.

There was a plague vaccine in history, but it has not been proved to be effective in preventing plague, so there is no plague vaccine available at present.

■ Hemorrhagic fever vaccine

As a reserve vaccine, ordinary citizens generally do not need to be vaccinated against epidemic hemorrhagic fever.

Soldiers and construction workers in epidemic hemorrhagic fever epidemic areas are the vaccination targets.

Therefore, bitten by rats, hamsters, rabbits and other animals generally do not need to be vaccinated.

Photo: Shenzhen Health and Health Commission

Transcription editor: Gao Shuting

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Original title: "Which animals were bitten and didn’t need rabies vaccine? 》

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